What is a bone marrow transplant (stem cell transplant)? (2023)

A bone marrow transplant is a medical procedure that replaces the bone marrow with healthy cells. Replacement cells can come from your own body or from a donor.

A bone marrow transplant is also called a stem cell transplant, more specifically a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Transplantation can be used to treat certain types of cancer, such as leukemia, myeloma, and lymphoma, as well as other blood and immune system diseases that affect the bone marrow.

What are stem cells? What is bone marrow?

Stem cells are special cells that can make copies of themselves and develop into many different types of cells that your body needs. There are many types of stem cells that are found in different parts of the body at different times.

Cancer and cancer treatment can damage blood stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells are stem cells that develop into blood cells.

Bone marrow is the soft, spongy tissue in the body that contains hematopoietic stem cells. It is located in the center of most bones. Hematopoietic stem cells are also found in the blood that travels throughout the body.

When hematopoietic stem cells are damaged, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets may not be produced. These blood cells are very important, and each one has a different job:

Red bloodcellstransport oxygen throughout the body. They also get carbon dioxide into the lungs so that it can be exhaled.

WBCthey are part of your immune system. They fight pathogens, which are viruses and bacteria that can cause disease.

Plateletsform clots to stop bleeding.

A bone marrow/stem cell transplant is a medical procedure that involves the transplantation of healthy stem cells into the bone marrow or blood. This restores the body's ability to produce the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets it needs.

What are the different types of transplants?

There are several types of bone marrow/stem cell transplants. The two main types are:

Autologous transplantation.Stem cells for autologous transplant come from your body. Sometimes cancer is treated with high-dose, intensive chemotherapy or radiation therapy. This type of treatment can damage stem cells and the immune system. This is why doctors remove or store stem cells from the blood or bone marrow before starting cancer treatment.

(Video) Lloyd Damon, MD. Bone Marrow & Stem Cell Transplantation

After chemotherapy, the stem cells return to the body, restoring the immune system and the body's ability to produce blood cells and fight infection. This procedure is also called AUTO transplant or stem cell rescue.

Allogeneic transplant.Stem cells for an allogeneic transplant come from another person, called a donor. Donor stem cells are given to a patient after chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. This is also called an ALLO transplant.

Many people have a "graft-versus-tumor effect" during an ALLO transplant. This is when the new stem cells recognize and destroy cancer cells still in the body. This is the main way ALLO grafts work in the treatment of cancer.

Finding a "matched donor" is an essential step in an ALLO transplant. A match is a healthy donor whose blood proteins, called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), are very similar to your own. This process is called HLA typing. Siblings of the same parents are often the best match, but another family member or an unrelated volunteer can also be a good match. If the donor proteins are close to your donor proteins, you are less likely to experience a serious side effect, the so-calledGraft versus host disease (GVHD). In this condition, healthy graft cells attack your cells.

If your medical team cannot find a suitable donor, there are other options.

Cord blood transplant.In this type of transplantation, stem cells from umbilical cord blood are used. The umbilical cord connects the fetus to the mother before birth. After birth, the baby does not need it. Cancer centers around the world use cord blood. Learn more aboutcord blood transplants;.

Parent-child transplant and haplotype inconsistent transplant.Parent, child, brother or sister cells do not always match the patient's HLA type perfectly, but they do match by 50%. Doctors are more likely to use these types of transplants to expand the use of transplants as an effective cancer treatment.

How does a bone marrow/stem cell transplant work?

The information below outlines the main steps of AUTO and ALLO transplants. In general, each procedure involves the collection of replacement stem cells, treatment of the patient to prepare the body for the transplant, the proper day of the transplant, and then a recovery period.

Often, a small tube can be placed in the patient's chest that remains during the transplant process. it's calledcatheter. Your health care team can give you chemotherapy, other medications, and a blood transfusion through a catheter. The catheter greatly reduces the amount of needles used in the skin as patients will need regular blood tests and other procedures during the transplant.

Please note that transplants are complex medical procedures and sometimes certain steps may be performed in a different order or on a different schedule to personalize specific care. Ask your doctor if you will need to stay in the hospital at different stages, and if so, for how long. Always talk to your medical team about what to expect before, during and after your transplant.

How does autograft work?

Step 1: Collect your stem cells.This step takes several days. You will first receive injections (injections) of the drug to increase the number of stem cells. The medical team then collects the stem cells through a vein in your arm or chest. Cells will be stored until needed.

Step 2: Pre-transplant therapy.This step takes 5 to 10 days. You will receive a high dose of chemotherapy. Sometimes patients also have radiation therapy.

Step 3: Rebuild your stem cells.This step is the day of the transplant. Each stem cell dose lasts about 30 minutes. This is called an infusion. Your medical team puts the stem cells back into your bloodstream through a catheter. You may have more than one injection.

(Video) What is bone marrow stem cell transplant?

Step 4: Recovery.Your doctor will closely monitor cell regeneration and growth, and you'll take antibiotics to help reduce infection. Your medical team will also deal with any side effects. Read more details on bone marrow transplant recovery below.

How does the ALLO transplant work?

Step 1: Donor identification.A matching donor must be found before starting the ALLO transplant process. Your HLA type will be found through blood tests. Your medical team will then work with you to conduct HLA testing of potential donors in your family and, if necessary, search the unrelated donor registry.

Step 2: Collecting the stem cells from the donor.Your medical team will collect cells from the donor's blood or bone marrow. If the cells come from the bloodstream, the donor will receive daily injections (injections) of a medicine that increases the number of white blood cells in the blood for several days before collection. The stem cells are then harvested from their bloodstream. If the cells come from bone marrow, your donor has a procedure called a bone marrow harvest in a hospital operating room.

Step 3: Pre-transplant therapy.This step takes 5 to 7 days. You will receive chemotherapy, with or without radiation, to prepare your body to receive the donor cells.

Step 4: Obtaining donor cells.This step is the day of the transplant. Your medical team places or injects donor stem cells into your bloodstream through a catheter. Collecting donor cells usually takes less than an hour.

Step 5: Recovery.During your initial recovery, you will receive antibiotics to reduce your risk of infection and other medications, including medications to prevent and/or manage GVHD. Your health care team will also deal with any side effects of the transplant. Read more below about bone marrow transplant recovery.

What is the recovery like after a bone marrow transplant?

Recovery from a bone marrow/stem cell transplant takes a long time. Recovery often has stages ranging from intensive care to the day of the transplant. As your long-term recovery progresses, you'll eventually move on to a schedule of regular medical check-ups over the coming months and years.

In the initial recovery period, it is important to pay attention to the signspollution. The intensive chemotherapy you receive before your transplant also damages your immune system. This is to allow the body to accept the transplant without attacking the stem cells. It takes time for the immune system to work again after a transplant. This means that you are more likely to become infected soon after the transplant.

You will be given antibiotics and other medications to reduce your risk of infection. If you've had an ALLO transplant, your medications will include medications to prevent and/or manage GVHD. Follow your health care team's advice on how to prevent infections soon after your transplant.

It is not uncommon for an infection to develop after a bone marrow transplant, even if the patient is very careful. Your doctor will watch you closely for signs of infection. You will have regular blood tests and other tests to see how your body and immune system respond to the donor cells. You may also receive a blood transfusion through a catheter.

The health care team will also develop a long-term recovery plan to monitor late side effects that can occur many months after the transplant.Learn more about the possible side effects of a bone marrow transplant.

What to consider before a transplant

Your doctor will recommend the best transplant option for you. Your options depend on the specific condition diagnosed, bone marrow health, age, and overall health. For example, if you have cancer or another bone marrow disease, you will likely have an ALLO transplant because the replacement stem cells must come from a healthy donor.

Before the transplant, you may need to travel to a center that performs many stem cell transplants. Your doctor may also need to go. At the centre, you will talk to a transplant specialist and undergo a medical examination and various tests.

A transplant will take a long time to receive medical care away from everyday life. Better to have oneguardian of the familywith you. And a transplant is an expensive medical procedure. Discuss these questions with your healthcare team and loved ones:

  • Can you describe my family carer's role in my care?

    (Video) Dallas Hope: Bone Marrow Transplant Process Explained — Be The Match

  • How long will my carer and I be away from work and family responsibilities?

  • Will I have to stay in the hospital? If so, when and for how long?

  • Will my insurance cover the cost of this transplant? What is my aftercare like?

  • How long will I need medical examinations during recovery?

How do you know if the transplant worked?

A successful transplant can mean different things for you, your family, and the healthcare team. Here are 2 ways to check if the graft has worked properly.

Your blood count will return to a safe level.A blood test measures the levels of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in the blood. Initially, the transplant keeps these numbers very low for 1 to 2 weeks. This affects your immune system and leaves you vulnerable to infection, bleeding, and fatigue. Your medical team will reduce this risk by performing blood and platelet transfusions. You will also receive antibiotics to prevent infections.

When new stem cells multiply, they produce more blood cells. Then the blood count will increase again. This is one way to check if the transplant was successful.

Your cancer is under control.Cancer treatment is often the goal of a bone marrow/stem cell transplant. It is possible to cure some cancers, such as some types of leukemia and lymphoma. For other diseases, cancer remission is the best possible outcome. Remission means no symptoms of cancer.

As mentioned above, you should see your doctor after your transplant and have regular check-ups. This is to monitor for any signs of cancer or complications related to the transplant, and to ensure care should you experience any side effects. This aftercare is an important part of your recovery.

Questions to ask your healthcare team

It's important to talk to your healthcare team often before, during, and after your transplant. We encourage you to gather information, ask questions, and work closely with your healthcare team to make treatment and care decisions. In addition to the above list, you can ask a few possible questions. Be sure to ask the question you have in mind.

  • What type of transplant would you recommend? Why;

  • If I have an ALLO transplant, how do we find a donor? What is the probability of finding a good match?

  • What kind of treatment will I receive before the transplant?

  • How long will my treatment before the transplant last? Where will this treatment take place?

  • Can you describe what the day of my transplant will be like?

    (Video) Bone Marrow Transplant Patient Information: Chapter 2 - Bone Marrow Transplants

  • How will the transplant affect my life? Can I work, exercise and do regular activities?

  • What side effects may occur during or immediately after treatment?

  • What side effects can occur years later?

  • What tests will I need after the transplant? How often?

  • Who can I talk to if I'm concerned about costs?

  • How will we know if the transplant worked?

  • What if the transplant fails? What if the cancer comes back?

Related Resources

Side effects of a bone marrow transplant (stem cell transplant)

Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy

Bone marrow donation is easy and important: Here's why

Bone marrow transplants and the elderly: 3 important questions

Why the Bone Marrow Registry needs more diverse donors and how to register

More information

Be fit: about the transplant

Match: National Bone Marrow Donor Program

Blood and Marrow Transplantation Information Network (BMT InfoNet)

(Video) Bone Marrow Transplant - Mayo Clinic

National Bone Marrow Transplantation Link (nbmtLINK)

United States Department of Health and Human Services: Learn more about transplantation as a treatment option


What is stem cell or bone marrow transplants? ›

A bone marrow transplant is also called a stem cell transplant or, more specifically, a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Transplantation can be used to treat certain types of cancer, such as leukemia, myeloma, and lymphoma, and other blood and immune system diseases that affect the bone marrow.

How is bone marrow stem cell transplant? ›

To prepare for a stem cell transplant, you receive chemotherapy to kill the diseased cells and malfunctioning bone marrow. Then, transplanted blood stem cells are put into your bloodstream. The transplanted stem cells find their way to your marrow, where — ideally — they begin producing new, healthy blood cells.

What is a bone marrow transplant simple explanation? ›

A procedure in which a patient receives healthy stem cells (blood-forming cells) to replace their own stem cells that have been destroyed by treatment with radiation or high doses of chemotherapy. The healthy stem cells may come from the bone marrow of the patient or from a related or unrelated donor.

What is a stem cell transplant do? ›

A stem cell or bone marrow transplant replaces damaged blood cells with healthy ones. It can be used to treat conditions affecting the blood cells, such as leukaemia and lymphoma.

What is the average life expectancy after bone marrow transplant? ›

People have more probability of surviving for another 15 years after a bone marrow transplant, who's been able to survive for at least 5 years after hematopoietic cell transplant without any signs and symptoms of relapse of the original disease. However, a normal life expectancy is not completely achieved.

Why would someone need a bone marrow transplant? ›

Bone marrow transplants treat cancers and other diseases of the blood and bone marrow by replacing unhealthy stem cells with healthy ones. BMT most commonly treats people with leukemia or lymphoma. BMT can be lifesaving for people whose bone marrow has been destroyed by chemotherapy or radiation treatment.

What is life like after a bone marrow transplant? ›

You might experience extreme fatigue, nausea or vomiting. Be patient — this should pass in a week or so. Remember that your body is busy trying to recover, and give it time to rest and heal. Pain: The high doses of chemotherapy used during conditioning may leave you with painful mouth sores and stomach irritation.

Is bone marrow stem cell transplant painful? ›

The stem cells will be passed slowly into your body through the central line. This process often takes around a couple of hours. The transplant will not be painful and you'll be awake throughout.

What is the life expectancy after a stem cell transplant? ›

Study Population

Overall, the estimated survival of the study cohort was 80.4% (95% CI, 78.1% to 82.6%) at 20 years after transplantation. Survival beyond 5 years correlated inversely with age at transplantation (Fig 1).

Who Cannot donate bone marrow? ›

Most diseases which may be defined as autoimmune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus, chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia, will prevent you from donating marrow or blood-forming cells.

How serious is a bone marrow transplant? ›

A bone marrow transplant has serious risks. Some patients suffer from life-threatening problems as a result of their transplant. These problems can include serious infections and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) , in which the transplanted cells attack the patient's body.

What is the age limit for bone marrow donors? ›

If you're between the ages of 18 and 40, committed to donating to any patient in need, and meet the medical guidelines, you can register to be a bone marrow donor. Patients especially need you if you're between the ages of 18 and 35. Research shows that cells from younger donors lead to more successful transplants.

What is the most common complication of bone marrow transplantation? ›

Bacterial infections are the most common. Viral, fungal and other infections can also occur. Some infections can develop later on, weeks to months after the transplant. Infections can cause extended hospital stay, prevent or delay engraftment, cause organ damage, and may be life threatening.

Is bone marrow transplant a major surgery? ›

A bone marrow transplant does not involve major surgery; rather, it's performed similarly to a blood transfusion. In a bone marrow transplant, bone marrow cells are collected from a donor's bloodstream through a needle inserted into a bone, typically a pelvic bone.

What is the most common cause of death after bone marrow transplant? ›

Infections, toxicity, and (after allogeneic HSCT only), graft-vs. -host disease (GVHD) are the main causes of death.

Is bone marrow transplant a last resort? ›

One of the reasons bone marrow transplants are often a last resort for patients with blood cancers is graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a common occurrence where transplanted donor immune cells attack both malignant and healthy cells in the recipient.

What are the odds of surviving a bone marrow transplant? ›

The survival rates after transplant for patients with acute leukemia in remission are 55% to 68% with related donors and 26% to 50% if the donor is unrelated.

How long do you stay in isolation after stem cell transplant? ›

If you need to be in a hospital, you probably won't have to stay longer than 3 weeks. If the stem cells came from another person (allogeneic transplant), you may spend 4 weeks or longer in the hospital. About 1 out of 4 people need to be readmitted within the first 3 months because of problems that may occur.

How much does it cost for bone marrow transplant? ›

The total costs of a stem cell transplant are typically $350,000-$800,000, depending on whether the procedure is autologous, meaning some of the patient's own marrow or stem cells are used, or allogeneic, meaning cells are harvested from a donor.

Who can donate bone marrow to a family member? ›

A brother or sister is most likely to be a match. There is a 1 in 4 chance of your cells matching. This is called a matched related donor (MRD) transplant. Anyone else in the family is unlikely to match.

How many hours does a bone marrow transplant take? ›

What happens during a bone marrow transplant? The entire transplant process takes around one to two hours. To receive your new bone marrow cells, healthy cells from your donor will be collected through an IV (intravenous) catheter (again, similar to donating blood) and transfused into you through a central line.

Is recovery from bone marrow transplant painful? ›

It can take a few weeks before donors completely recover from donating bone marrow. During your recovery, you may have the following side effects: Your lower back and the back of your hips may ache or feel sore for a few days after the procedure. You may have bruises.

Can you walk after a bone marrow transplant? ›

You may be able to exercise as normal or stick with gentle activity such as light walking or cycling, and there are times when it's safest to avoid exercise. Your team will also be on the look-out for signs of infection, such as a fever.

What are two possible negative side effects from a stem cell transplant? ›

Graft versus host disease (GvHD) with a donor transplant
  • diarrhoea.
  • weight loss.
  • yellowing of the eyes and skin (jaundice)
  • sore eyes or mouth.
  • skin rashes.
  • shortness of breath.

How much does a stem cell transplant cost? ›

The cost of a stem cell transplant can vary depending on the type of treatment needed, ranging from $15,000 to $75,000. According to a 2022 poll, treatments cost between $10,000 and $40,000, while a Twitter poll reported that patients could expect to spend from under $5,000 to over $50,000.

Who is the longest living bone marrow transplant recipient? ›

The recipient of a bone marrow transplant in 1963, Nancy King McLain is one of the world's longest living bone marrow transplant survivors. The physician who performed Nancy's transplant as his very first, Robert Kyle, MD, of Mayo Clinic, remains her doctor today.

Is 70 too old for stem cell transplant? ›

Bone marrow transplantation has a long track record of success for treating certain cancers. While older age is no longer considered a barrier to receiving this treatment, making sure that it is right for you and that you're prepared for the transplant experience are vital parts of the decision-making process.

What cancers are common after stem cell transplant? ›

Leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) occasionally occurs in patients who were transplanted with their own stem cells (autologous transplant). The risk is highest among patients who: received certain types of chemotherapy before or during transplant, such as cytoxan or etoposide.

What happens if a bone marrow transplant fails? ›

This is also called “failure to engraft” or “non-engraftment.” This is serious but uncommon. The most common treatment for graft failure is another transplant. A second transplant may use cells from the same donor or from a different donor.

Do you lose your hair with bone marrow transplant? ›

You lose all your hair with ALL treatment. This includes your eyelashes, eyebrows, underarm, leg and sometimes pubic hair. Your hair will usually grow back once treatment has finished but it is likely to be softer. It may grow back a different colour or be curlier than before.

Who pays for bone marrow transplant? ›

All medical costs for the donation procedure are covered by the National Marrow Donor Program® (NMDP), which operates the Be The Match Registry®, or by the patient's medical insurance, as are travel expenses and other non-medical costs. The only costs to the donor might be time taken off from work.

What should you avoid after bone marrow transplant? ›

Foods to avoid (unsafe):
  • Rare or medium-rare, cooked meat, fish, or poultry.
  • Raw tofu.
  • Cold cuts or meats from delicatessens.
  • Cold meat or poultry.
  • Raw eggs.
  • Eggs not well-cooked such as sunny-side-up (runny yolk)
  • Cold soups and gazpacho, all miso products such as paste and soup.
  • Sushi, sashimi.

Does blood type have to match for stem cell transplant? ›

For bone marrow transplantation, the blood group of the donor is not important. In fact, after bone marrow transplantation, the patient will have the donor's blood type.

How long does it take to find a bone marrow match? ›

For many patients, the donor search takes as little as 1-2 weeks from the time a donor testing request is made until the lab has the blood sample and HLA typing results. Sometimes it can take longer including some searches that may require multiple rounds of donor selections.

Is there a weight requirement for bone marrow donation? ›

Medical guidelines for cellular therapy product donation (such as peripheral blood stem cells and bone marrow) include an assessment of body mass index (BMI), which is calculated from weight and height. There is not a minimum weight requirement.

What is the 5 year survival rate after bone marrow transplant? ›

A 2016 study of over 6,000 adults with AML found that people who received an autologous bone marrow transplant had a 5-year survival rate of 65%. For those who received an allogenic bone marrow transplant, it was 62%.

Does bone marrow transplant reduce life expectancy? ›

Research led by UAB's Institute for Cancer Outcomes and Survivorship and director Smita Bhatia, M.D., MPH (above) finds that patients who received autologous blood or marrow transplantation (using their own cells) over the past three decades lived on average seven years fewer than peers.

What cancers need bone marrow transplants? ›

Stem cell or bone marrow transplants are treatments for some types of cancer including leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma. You have them with high dose chemotherapy and sometimes radiotherapy. They are sometimes called stem cell rescue, or bone marrow rescue, or intensive treatment.

Can a 70 year old get a bone marrow transplant? ›

At Mayo Clinic, doctors will consider selected patients over 65 years of age, depending on their overall physical health. People who need a bone marrow transplant may have any of several serious conditions, including: Acute lymphocytic leukemia.

Can a 70 year old donate bone marrow? ›

What is the cut off age for being an adult marrow donor? Everyone on Be The Match Registry is critical to saving lives. Once you become a registry member, you are listed on the registry until the age of 61, unless you request to be removed from the registry before then.

Why can't people over 40 donate bone marrow? ›

The upper age limit is based on both donor and patient considerations. There is a small increase in the risk of complications from donations in older donors. There is also a slightly increased risk of blood disorders in older people.

What is the difference between a bone marrow transplant and a stem cell transplant? ›

A stem cell transplant uses stem cells from your bloodstream, or a donor's bloodstream. This is also called a peripheral blood stem cell transplant. A bone marrow transplant uses stem cells from your bone marrow, or a donor's bone marrow.

What not to do after stem cell treatment? ›

Avoid any forceful rotation or manual manipulation. Remember that good healing during the first two months after the procedure will give you the best chance for success. The cells are fragile, and you need to be cautious that you don't overload them or cause too much stress or shearing on them.

What are two diseases that affect bone marrow? ›

Bone Marrow Diseases
  • In leukemia, a cancer of the blood, the bone marrow makes abnormal white blood cells.
  • In aplastic anemia, the bone marrow doesn't make red blood cells.
  • In myeloproliferative disorders, the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells.

What is the survival rate of a stem cell transplant? ›

UChicago Medicine had an 80% one-year survival rate among adult stem cell patients, according to the latest statistics released in mid-December by the Center for International Blood & Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) on behalf of the U.S. Health Resources & Services Administration (HRSA).

What diseases can be cured with stem cells? ›

People who might benefit from stem cell therapies include those with spinal cord injuries, type 1 diabetes, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, heart disease, stroke, burns, cancer and osteoarthritis.

How painful is a stem cell transplant? ›

The stem cells will be passed slowly into your body through the central line. This process often takes around a couple of hours. The transplant will not be painful and you'll be awake throughout.

What is the total cost of a stem cell transplant? ›

The cost of a stem cell transplant can vary depending on the type of treatment needed, ranging from $15,000 to $75,000. According to a 2022 poll, treatments cost between $10,000 and $40,000, while a Twitter poll reported that patients could expect to spend from under $5,000 to over $50,000.

Is a stem cell transplant a last resort? ›

One of the reasons bone marrow transplants are often a last resort for patients with blood cancers is graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a common occurrence where transplanted donor immune cells attack both malignant and healthy cells in the recipient.

What is the best age for bone marrow transplant? ›

One factor is the age of the donor. Medical research has shown that cells from younger donors lead to better long-term survival for patients after transplant. Doctors request donors in the 18-35 age group 75% of the time. We are committed to providing the best possible outcome for patients.

What are the negatives of using stem cells? ›

Other side effects are related to the stem cell transplant.
  • Low blood cell counts. You will have low blood cells counts after a stem cell transplant. ...
  • Infection. ...
  • Bleeding. ...
  • Anemia. ...
  • Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) ...
  • Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) ...
  • Digestive system problems. ...
  • Skin and hair problems.

What are the negative side effects of stem cell therapy? ›

Common short-term side effects of stem cell therapy include fatigue, headache, chills, nausea, and low-grade fever. However, side effects vary; not every patient will experience side effects. These side effects are generally mild and temporary.

Can you live longer with stem cells? ›

Our current knowledge of human stem cells makes it feasible to delay aging and improve health and lifespan. Stem cell treatments can play a crucial role in delaying the aging process. Together with anti-aging genes, a stem cell infusion can create a sophisticated shield that can prevent or slow the effects of aging.


1. Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplant Program Going Strong One Year Later | Sanford Health News
(Sanford Health)
2. Bone Marrow Transplant for Leukemia | Robert and Jamie's Story
(Penn Medicine)
3. Bone Marrow Transplantation: Stem Cell Transplantation
(Boston Children's Hospital)
4. How are stem cells used for bone marrow transplantation?
(Nicklaus Children's Hospital)
5. Bone Marrow Transplant for Lymphoma
(Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center)
6. Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplantation for Cancer – An Introduction


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